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挖掘民法典的公法价值 推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化
2020年11月13日 10:56:45  作者:孔祥俊  来源:光明日报
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   xijinpingzongshujizaizhongyangzhengzhijudiershicijitixuexishizhichu,“minfadiandiaozhengguifanziranren、farendengminshizhutizhijianderenshenguanxihecaichanguanxi”,“shiyibutixianduishengmingjiankang、caichananquan、jiaoyibianli、shenghuoxingfu、rengezunyandenggefangmianquanlipingdengbaohudeminfadian”。minfadianyindiaozhengpingdengzhutizhijianderenshenguanxihecaichanguanxi,ershuyusifadefanchou,bingbeichengweishehuishenghuode“baikequanshu”、minshiquanlide“xuanyanshu”yijishichangjingjide“jibenfa”。shishishang,minfadianbujinshisifazhi“dian”,tongshiyejuyoujidadefalvyichuxiaoying,yunhanbingyanshenglezhongyaodegongfajiazhi。

  重视民法典的溢出效应,彰显其在法治中国建设中的基础性作用

  zuoweixinzhongguochengliyilaidiyibuyi“fadian”mingmingdefalv,minfadianshixinshidaiwoguoshehuizhuyifazhijianshedezhongdachengguo。xijinpingzongshujizhichu:“minfadianzaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyifalvtixizhongjuyouzhongyaodiwei,shiyibugugenben、wenyuqi、lizhangyuandejichuxingfalv,duituijinquanmianyifazhiguo、jiakuaijiansheshehuizhuyifazhiguojia,duifazhanshehuizhuyishichangjingji、gonggushehuizhuyijibenjingjizhidu,duijianchiyirenminweizhongxindefazhansixiang、yifaweihurenminquanyi、tuidongwoguorenquanshiyefazhan,duituijinguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihua,doujuyouzhongdayiyi。”tahaiqiangdiao:“minfadianshiquanmianyifazhiguodezhongyaozhiduzaiti,henduoguidingtongyouguanguojiajiguanzhijiexiangguan,zhijieshejigongminhefarendequanliyiwuguanxi。”zheibiaoming,minfadiansuiranyidiaozhengsifaguanxiheguifansifaxingweiweizhuyaogongneng,dantayemingquehuadingleguojiajiguanlvxingzhize、xingshizhiquandefanweihejiexian,gouchengleduigongquanlideguifanheyueshu。zheishiminfadiandefalvyichuxiaoying,biaomingminfadianbujinshiminshijibenfa,tongshiyeshiguifanheyueshugongquanlidejichuxingfalv。

  minfadiandezhuyaojiazhihegongnengtixianzaiquanlibaozhanghequanliyueshulianggefangmian。qiyi,minfadiandiaozhengguifanziranren、farendengminshizhutizhijianderenshenguanxihecaichanguanxi,tongrenminqunzhongshengchanshenghuomibukefen,tonggexinggeyefazhanxixixiangguan。minfadianshishidehao,renminqunzhongquanyijiuhuidedaofalvbaozhang,renyurenzhijiandejiaowanghuodongjiuhuigengjiayouxu,shehuijiuhuigengjiahexie,zheiyouzhuyuzhulaoguojiazhilideshehuigenji;errenminqunzhongjijicanyuminfadiandeguancheheshishi,zhengshituijinfazhiguojia、fazhizhengfu、fazhishehuiyitijianshe,tuijinguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihuadebiranyaoqiu。qier,minfadianbawoguoduonianlaishixingshehuizhuyishichangjingjitizhihejiaqiangshehuizhuyifazhijianshequdedeyixiliezhongyaozhiduchengguoyongfadiandexingshiquedingxialai,bingqieshiquanmianyifazhiguodezhongyaozhiduzaiti。shishiminfadian,youzhuyumingqueguojiayushehui、zhengfuyushichangdejibenbianjie,xingchengduigongquanlidebiyaoyueshu,zhuliguojiazhilixiandaihuashuipingdetisheng,erzheishiminfadiangongfajiazhidetixian。

  youci,womenjiyaojiuminfadiankanminfadian,shenwaminfadiandeneibujiazhi,chongfenfahuiminfadianduipingdengminshiguanxidediaojiezuoyong;youyaotiaochuminfadiankanminfadian,zhongshiminfadiandeyichuxiaoying,shenkerenshiwaizaiyuminfadiandeyinsuheliliangduiyuminfadiandezhenzhengguancheshishisuojuyoudeyingxiangli,zhunquebawohechongfenfahuiminfadianzaifazhizhongguojianshezhongdejichuxingzuoyong。

  wajuebingfahuiminfadiandegongfajiazhi,zaiguojiazhilimianlinxuduoxinrenwuxinyaoqiudedangxiajijuxianshiyiyi。bixuqingxingkandao,tongdangheguojiashiyefazhanyaoqiuxiangbi,tongrenminqunzhongqidaixiangbi,tongtuijinguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihuamubiaoxiangbi,woguofazhijianshehaicunzaiyixieyoudaijinyibuwanshanzhichu。liru,youdefalvfaguiweinengquanmianfanyingkeguanguilvherenminyiyuan,zhenduixing、kecaozuoxingbuqiang;bufenshehuichengyuanzunfaxinfashoufayongfayishibuqiang;yixieguojiagongzuorenyuantebieshilingdaoganbuyifabanshiguannianbuqiang、nenglibuzu。zheixiewentidecunzai,fangailedangheguojiashiyefazhanheguojiazhilixiandaihuashuipingdetisheng,yeguanhuminfadiannengfoudedaoyouxiaoshishi。jiejueshangshuwenti,jiyaofahuiminfaneibudezizuzhililiang,zhangxianminfaguifan、peiyuquanliwenhua,yeyaofahuiminfadiandegongfajiazhi,yizhiduhuadefangshigouchengduigongquanlideyouxiaoguifanheyueshu,jinerhuiyingguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihuatichudezhuduoxinyaoqiu,huyingfazhizhongguojianshetichudexinrenwu。

  发挥民法典对公权力的规范和约束作用

  minfadianduigongquanlideguifanheyueshuzuoyong,juyoujichuxing、quanmianxinghepubianxing,tixianzaiminshilifa、xingzhengzhifadengfangfangmianmian。

  minfadianduilifahuodongdeguifanheyueshu。woguominfadianshizaizhenghezhongduoxiangguandanxingfajichushang,jingkexuebianzuanhejichengchuangxinerzhidingde,shitixihuabianzuandejieguo,tabiranshiminshilingyudetonglingfa。danshichangjingjitiaojianxia,shehuiguanxigaodufuza、biandongbuju,falvdiaozhengbiranchengxianchudongtaihuaheduoyuanhuadetezheng。zaiwoguolifaquancengcijiaoduodebeijingxia,ruhezaizhongduolifazhongquebaominfadianshishidetongyixing,zaiyidingchengdushanggouchengxindetiaozhan。yiduigongminquanlidebaohuweili。woguoxianfaduigongminquanlideguidinggengduoshiguihuaxing、xuanshixingde,qiluoshiyilaizhuanmenfa,minfadianshizhijieluoshixianfaquanlibaohutiaokuandejibenfalv,zaiminshilingyujuyouzhunxianfahuominshixianfadegongnenghejiazhi,zaiquanlibaohushangdediweishiyouyuede。erqie,woguolifafadi8tiaoguiding,minshijibenzhidushizhinengzhidingfalvdefalvbaoliushixiang,minfadianzhinengshibaozhangquanlidezhudaofa,erbunengbeisuiyijiancaiqiegeguafen。zhengshiyouyuminfadiandeyouyuefalvweijie,qitafalvfaguiheguifanxingfalvwenjiandezhiding,douyingdangshulizunzhongminfadiandeyishi。zaiminfadianzhixia,chufeijingshouquanhebiyao(ruminfadianzhongdechuwaitiaokuan),fouzelifahuodongbunengxiansuohuozheboduojibenminshiquanli,bunenglansheliwai。minfadianduilifahuodongdeguifanheyueshuhaitixianzai,minfadianbanbushishihou,xianyoufalvfaguihesifajieshizhongtongminfadianguidingheyuanzebuyizhide,yingzhuajinqingli,gaixiugaidexiugai,gaifeizhidefeizhi;haiyaofahuifalvjieshidezuoyong,jishimingquefalvguidinghanyiheshiyongfalvyiju,baochiminfadianwendingxingheshiyingxingxiangtongyi。

  minfadianduixingzhengzhifahuodongxingchengguifanheyueshu,bingweixingzhengfatigongbuchongxingfayuan。xingzhengzhifashejishehuishenghuofangfangmianmian,zaixingzhengzhifazhongchulihaoxingzhengfayuminfadiandeguanxi,duiyubaozhanggongminquanlihequebaominfadianguancheshishi,juyouzhiguanzhongyaodeyiyi。zaiwoguotuijinquanmianyifazhiguojinchengzhong,yueshuzhengfuquanlishizhongshizhongyaozhuti。liru,dangdeshibajiesizhongquanhuitichu“qianghuaduixingzhengquanlidezhiyuehejiandu”,“xingzhengjiguanyaojianchifadingzhizebixuwei、fawushouquanbukewei”。《zhonggongzhongyangguowuyuanguanyuxinshidaijiakuaiwanshanshehuizhuyishichangjingjitizhideyijian》zhichu:“quanmianjianlixingzhengquanlizhiyuehejiandujizhi。yifaquanmianlvxingzhengfuzhineng,tuijinjigou、zhineng、quanxian、chengxu、zerenfadinghua,shixingzhengfuquanzeqingdanzhidu。”yueshuzhengfuquanlibunengtutuokongyan,yebunengjinjinyikaozhengfuquanzefumianqingdandengxingzhengzhiduhecuoshi,erxuyaogengweixiediaodehetixihuadefalvzhidu。quanlidefanweijiushiquanlidebianjie,minshiquanlidedaochongfenzhangyangheyouxiaobaohu,zhengfudexingweibianjieyejiubiandegengweiqingxi。zaizheigeyiyishang,minfadiantongguoquelihebaozhangminshiquanli,huaqingquanliyuquanlidejiexian,dangranshiyueshuzhengfuquanlidejibenfa。zhiyouzuodaominfadiandeyouxiaoshishihequanlidechongfenbaozhang,cainengbaquanliguanzailongzili,weiyifazhiguodaxiajianshijichu。tongshi,minfadianbujinshiminshilingyudejibenfa,zaimouzhongyiyishangyeshixingzhengfadejichuxingfalv。minfayuanze(ruchengshixinyongyuanze)、minfajingshenshenzhiminfaguifan(ruhetongfaguifan),keyichengweixingzhengfadebuchongxingfayuan,zaixingzhengfameiyoujutiguidingshi,keyicanzhaominfadiandeguiding,tishengxingzhengfazhishuiping。minfadianyuxingzhengfadeliangxinghudong,youzhuyushixianquanlibaozhanghequanliyueshudetongyi。

  minfadianduigejidangheguojiajiguanyijilingdaoganbulvxingzhize、xingshizhiquanxingchengguifanheyueshu。dangheguojiajiguancongshiguangfandeshejiminshiquanlidegongzuohehuodong,zaigongzuozhongruheqianghuaminfayishi,qieshizunzhongminshiquanli,shijianshefazhizhengfudezhongyaofangmianhebiranyaoqiu。minfadianshishishuipinghexiaoguo,shihenglianggejidangheguojiajiguanlvxingweirenminfuwuzongzhidezhongyaochidu。xijinpingzongshujizhichu:“guojiajiguanlvxingzhize、xingshizhiquanbixuqingchuzishenxingweihehuodongdefanweihejiexian。gejidangheguojiajiguankaizhangongzuoyaokaolvminfadianguiding,bunengqinfanrenminqunzhongxiangyoudehefaminshiquanli,baokuorenshenquanlihecaichanquanli。tongshi,youguanzhengfujiguan、jianchajiguan、sifajiguanyaoyifalvxingzhineng、xingshizhiquan,baohuminshiquanlibushouqinfan、cujinminshiguanxihexieyouxu。”gejizhengfuyingyibaozhengminfadianyouxiaoshishiweizhongyaozhuashoutuijinfazhizhengfujianshe,baminfadianzuoweixingzhengjuece、xingzhengguanli、xingzhengjiandudezhongyaobiaochi,budeweibeifalvfaguisuiyizuochujiansungongmin、farenheqitazuzhihefaquanyihuozengjiaqiyiwudejueding,bingchigongzhengsifa,tigaominshianjianshenpanshuipinghexiaolv,tigaobananzhilianghesifagongxinli。gejilingdaoganbuyaozuoxuexi、zunshou、weihuminfadiandebiaolv,tigaoyunyongminfadianweihurenminquanyi、huajiemaodunjiufen、cujinshehuihexiewendingdenengliheshuiping。

  zongshangsuoshu,minfadianshimingfeitongxunchang,bujinshisifafadian,gengjuyouxianmingdegongfawaiyijiazhi,yingdangjiyugaoduguanzhu。zhiyoufahuiminfadianduigongquanliguifanheyueshuzuoyong,tuidongquanliguannian、zerenguannian、guizeguannianshenrurenxin,cainengzaigenghaobaozhangrenminhefaquanyijichushang,fahuiqituijinguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihuadezuoyong。(zuozhe:kongxiangjun,xishanghaijiaotongdaxuejiangxijiaoshou、kaiyuanfaxueyuanyuanzhang)

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